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      Han wudi period, the development of textile industry!

      Time: 2018-10-08 11:29:26

      Click: 737

      Since the government was directly involved in the production and management of handicraft industry, especially after emperor wudi of the han dynasty implemented the monopoly of yantie guanying, the production and development of national rival industry played a decisive leading role. In terms of raw material supply, capital input, technical equipment, labor source, product sales and other aspects, government-run handicraft industry occupies an absolute dominant position over private handicraft industry. In other words, the state monopolizes certain raw materials or industries through its special privileges, forming an exclusive business situation and forcing the sale of products, especially iron smelting and ironware manufacturing, to be monopolized by the state. To the demand of some raw material or capital, great majority is collected without pay in the form of taxation, and the labor force that needs often obtains with the form that collects hair to serve again, undertake without pay labor, still use a large number of the criminal that calls punishment person. As a result, there is almost no cost associated with official handicraft products. Excess profits become an important reason for the long-term prosperity of the official handicraft industry. Since the products produced by the official handicraft industry are not for the purpose of selling for profit, the vast majority of them are for the use of the government and all levels of government. Therefore, in the production process, there are few corners, fraud and other phenomena. Most of the products are genuine and carefully crafted. However, for the purpose of selling for profit, the iron production industry, its products of high quality and high price, more defects. Private handicraft industry is mainly set up by the powerful and extremely rich. They not only occupy a large number of land, farmers, but also engaged in handicraft production and business trade, making their products production and marketing through a dragon, in the management of the advantages. Some handwork owners are also officials, servants in the family engaged in handicraft production work. During the reign of emperor xuandi, zhang anshi, a general with a horse and a carriage, had more than 700 children, all of whom were skilled in manual labor and engaged in handicraft production. For its wealth, in the handicraft production industry, has a strong advantage.

      With the population of the western han dynasty approaching 60 million, solving the problem of dressing could be regarded as one of the most important issues, making the textile industry an important industry in various handicraft industries. First of all, to meet the needs of the royal family, ling cheng was set up under the shaofu to weave east and west, in charge of east and west weaving rooms, to produce high-grade textiles for the royal family. At the same time, in chenliu and qi counties, where the textile industry was well developed, service officers were set up, who were specially responsible for organizing the production of silk tribute products, selecting the best products to be sent to the capital for the royal family to enjoy. These government-run textile industries cost hundreds of millions of dollars a year to feed the ruling class. In the private textile industry, there are workshops dedicated to selling products, and there are household textile production that exists widely among the people, mainly for self-use. Textile raw materials are mainly silk, hemp, kudzu, wool and so on. Among them, silk and hemp textiles are mainly concentrated in qi, lu, sichuan and other places rich in mulberry, MAO imitation weaving is mainly concentrated in the western and northern pastoral areas, and ge textile industry is mainly concentrated in the area rich in ge zhongyue. In the late 20th century, in the boat banyan of wuyi mountain in chong 'an, fujian province, China's Bronze Age blue-gray kapok cloth was found, with a history of 1,000 years from the western han dynasty. Therefore, kapok should also be one of the textile raw materials of the western han dynasty.

      According to the documentary records and archaeological data verification, the western han dynasty's silk weaving species, such as damask, luo, silk, satin, silk, brocade, yarn, etc., everything. Especially in the developed areas of kanto, is also the most developed area of the country's textile industry, its products are famous all over the world. According to the book of han geography, qi was a land of women workers since ancient times. Lu has quite a mulberry industry "; Guangdong "men farming, planting rice silk hemp, women silkworm weaving achievements." "Salt and iron theory" said "gunyu more lacquer silk by silk goods." In terms of textile technology, from silk reeling to weaving and dyeing, the western han dynasty reached a very high level of skills. Liu an, huainan king during the reign of emperor wudi of the han dynasty, said in his book huainan zi, "the nature of cocoons is silk. However, if women workers cook hot soup, they cannot make silk." Dong zhongshu's spring and autumn fan lu also said: "cocoon to tie up soup can be silk." It shows that the cocoon reeling technique with hot water has been generally mastered at that time, which makes the cocoon soften quickly and dissolve the colloid in water, while the silk becomes soft and can be stripped layer by layer and extracted from the roots. Spinning spinning wheel by hand has also been widely used. In 1972, silk paintings depicting spinning wheel were unearthed in the tomb of emperor wudi of the han dynasty in yinqiu mountain, linyi, shandong province, which provided a glimpse of the prototype of the spinning wheel of the western han dynasty.

      Its structure is simple and suitable, only spinning wheel, bracket and base are used to synthesize silk thread. With this spinning wheel, spinning yarns of different specifications can be spun according to different fabric requirements, which greatly improves the spinning efficiency. The weaving technology, on the basis of the widespread use of the oblique loom, invented the multi-heald and multi-language flower loom and the bundle heald jacquard, and completed the waste from plain loom to jacquard loom. Can be used to weave a variety of flowers, animal patterns. After some fabrics are woven and then dyed and embroidered, they are more colorful and wonderful. In the han dynasty such as mawangdui in changsha, a large number of exquisite embroidery products of the western han dynasty have been unearthed. In printing and dyeing technology, there are both relief printing, and hollow plate printing. The pigments used are extracted from plants and minerals, red, green, yellow, blue, black, brown, gray, brown and other colors are quite complete, which can truly reflect various natural colors and make the fabric further meet the requirements of perfection.

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